As part of the Urban Futures series, this study examines the likely condition of the Toronto-Related Region, up to 2031, if current land use and infrastructure development processes remained unchanged. The report concludes that if population growth and urban development continue as they have in the past, by 2031, the population would be 10.53 million (an increase of 43%), and roughly 1069 sq. km of non-urban land would be consumed - nearly twice the area of the existing City of Toronto (an increase of 45% in urbanized land). Average population and employment densities in the region would increase only very slightly. Congestion and travel delays on the road network would increase, along with CO2 emissions. Increases in transit capacity and usage would be modest. The study also estimated the costs of water and wastewater required to service the projected level and pattern of growth.