Archetypes

The concept of industry Archetypes was introduced in Chapter 2, as coherent groupings of industries that share both economic and geographic characteristics. As key traded and/or knowledge-intensive industries, the Archetypes cluster or concentrate geographically, although the specific spatial patterns vary from type to type. We found that each Archetype has a distinct spatial pattern within the GGH. Understanding these patterns, as well as the economic transformations that are under way that shape them, will help the planners develop better plans and policy responses.

For example, in 2008 Elizabeth Currid and James Connolly looked at the spatial patterns of six advanced service industries across the 10 largest U.S. cities and found that they all cluster geographically within their urban regions.[1] Most highly clustered were arts and culture industries, followed by media, engineering/high tech, management, finance, and professional industries. The specific clustering patterns varied, however: arts, culture, and media industries tended to be clustered in downtowns only, while other industries located in several nodes across the urban region.

We have identified 12 Archetypes for the GGH, including one "Special" category comprising three individual industries, each with unique spatial patterns. Together, the Archetypes accounted for 1.46 million jobs in 2016 (see Table 7). Overall, the Archetypes saw a net decline in employment between 2006 and 2016, mostly due to the loss of almost 130,000 Other Manufacturing jobs during that period. This category aside, employment in the remaining Archetypes grew by 108,000 jobs, or 11 percent. There was nonetheless significant variation among the Archetypes: some saw significant growth (such as Soft Tech) while others declined (such as Hard Tech).

Table 7: Employment by Archetype GGH 2006 and 2016

 

2006

2016

Change

% Change

Finance

228,150

275,300

47,150

20.7

High Order Business Services

98,215

123,345

25,130

25.6

Back Office

54,710

51,715

-2,995

-5.5

Arts & Design

102,645

112,665

10,020

9.8

Soft Tech

71,960

91,270

19,310

26.8

Hard Tech

72,810

51,225

-21,585

-29.6

Science-based

52,950

64,980

12,030

22.7

Higher Education

59,635

78,100

18,465

31.0

Logistics

25,170

32,635

7,465

29.7

Other Wholesaling

139,920

121,750

-18,170

-13.0

Special

 

 

 

 

Aerospace

10,815

13,150

2,335

21.6

Telecoms

25,400

32,035

6,635

26.1

Pharma

22,960

25,175

2,215

9.6

Other Manufacturing

516,255

386,480

-129,775

-25.1

Archetypes Total

1,481,595

1,459,825

-21,770

-1.5

Archetypes Total w/o Other Manufacturing

965,340

1,073,345

108,005

11.2

Total GGH core employment

2,300,015

2,375,465

75,450

3.3

Total GGH employment

3,437,935

3,710,915

272,980

7.9

 

The remainder of this chapter looks at each Archetype in turn, describing its characteristics, spatial patterns, and drivers of change. Some Archetype profiles have more analysis and information on key drivers than others, reflecting the state of the literature: some industries are the subject of more research than others. Future research will be needed to fill in the gaps on the less-well-understood Archetypes.

 

[1] Elizabeth Currid and James Connolly, "Patterns of knowledge: The geography of advanced services and the case of arts and culture," Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 2008, 98 (2): 414-434.